|Title:||蝴蝶蘭海運外銷降低貯運損耗與改善品質||Other Titles:||The Improvement on Reducing the loss and Increasing the Quality of Phalaenopsis Plants after Marine Transportation||Authors:||黃肇家
Huang Chao Chia
Huey Suey Huang
Chin Yu Tsai
Ching Hui Chung
|Keywords:||貨櫃;濕度;包裝;品種;Container;Relative humidity;Packaging;Cultivar||Issue Date:||Oct-2018||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Related Publication(s):||農業試驗所特刊第209號||Start page/Pages:||77-85||Source:||強化台灣花卉產業競爭力之科研技術研討會專刊||Conference:||強化台灣花卉產業競爭力之科研技術研討會
Proceedings of the Symposium on Agricultural Science and Technology Researches for Strengthening the Competitiveness of Flower Industry in Taiwan
蝴蝶蘭是我國最重要之外銷花卉，2017 年蝴蝶蘭出口值佔總花卉出口值之71.7%。台灣蝴蝶蘭外銷從2006 年海運開始後大幅提升，主要是輸美量增加，2013 年起美國是我國最大輸出國。蝴蝶蘭海運是外銷大幅成長之關鍵因素之ㄧ，因為海運比空運可以降低運費約70%，海運可以大量裝載，因此海運技術之開發對蝴蝶蘭產業之發展有重大之影響。台灣蝴蝶蘭以海運外銷之技術已很成熟，商業化應用已有10 年以上，目前海運損耗率大約在3% (1–5%) 左右。這些技術包括溫度之控制，包裝方法，植株馴化，預冷等。其中運輸貨櫃高濕一直是無法改善之問題，使貯運損耗難以進一步降低。2016 年為了拓展海運巴西，運輸時間預計長達45–50 日，因此研究以耐貯運品種以及低濕貯運來克服，品種上以兩個蘭園各以15個與18 個品種，貯藏52 日測試，結果各有4 個與6 個品種損耗率為0%。低濕貯運，以95%RH與85%RH 貯藏52 日模擬貯運，結果損耗率由14.2%降為4.2%。因此洽請長榮貨櫃公司引用低濕貨櫃，以及洽商台大蘭園，實際裝載蝴蝶蘭植株海運美國，貯運35 日，證實貨櫃濕度可由95% RH 降至80%RH。之後連續測試5 個貨櫃，結果總平均損耗率降為2.0%，一般貨櫃為3.6%，此外B 級品亦由一般貨櫃之9.4%降至4.2% (良率由87.1%提高為93.8%)。B 級品是植株有小缺陷，例如有少量黃葉，這些植株不算損耗，但開花時可能品質會下降。這些結果顯示低濕貨櫃確實可以降低損耗並提高品質 (良率)。使用低濕貨櫃時，要注意選擇可實際降濕且溫度穩定之貨櫃，要調控適當的換氣量，而且要有適當的包裝方法，紙箱通氣不良或內部裝載太滿，會使貨櫃的低濕達不到紙箱內部，也就降低了低濕的效果。目前海運巴西只需要約35–40 日，和海運美東相似，因此目前低濕貨櫃也應用於海運巴西。
Phalaenopsis is the most important export flower in Taiwan. In 2017 the export value of Phalaenopsis accounted for 71.7% of the total flower export value. The export of Phalaenopsis increased significantly since the beginning of marine shipment in 2006, mainly due to the increase in the export to the United States. The United States has been the largest exporter since 2013. Marine shipment is a key factor in the substantial growth of export sales because it can reduce freight cost by about 70% compared to air transportation, and it can be loaded in large quantities. Therefore, the development of marine shipping technology has a major impact on the development of the Phalaenopsis industry. Marine transportation technology has been commercialized for more than 10 years. At present the shipping loss is about 3% (1-5%). These technologies include temperature control, packaging methods, plant acclimation, and pre-cooling. Among them, the high humidity in the shipping container has been unable to be improved, making it difficult to further reduce in transportation loss. In this study low humidity shipment is the main target for improvement. Plants of 4 cultivars of Phalaenopsis have been tested by storing for 52 days at 95% RH and 85% RH. The losses after storage were reduced from 14.2% to 4.2%. Thereafter low humidity containers have been arranged by EverGreen Container Company. A test with fully loading of the Phalaenopsis plants had been conducted. The plants were shipped for 35 days to the United States. The relative humidity of the containers was kept at 80% RH as expected. It was about 95% RH in common container. Total of 5 containers have been tested continuously thereafter. The average of losses was 2.0% compared to 3.6% in common containers. In addition, the plants of grade B were also reduced from 9.4% in common container to 4.2% in low humidity container. It means the grade A plants increased from 87.1% to 93.8%. The results proved that low humidity shipment is a good tool to reduce transportation loss in Phalaenopsis exportation in Taiwan.
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