|Title:||Streptomyces saraceticus與LTM在防治作物線蟲病害之永續性作為||Other Titles:||Biological control of plant parasitic nematodes with Streptomyces saraceticus and LTM||Authors:||蔡東纂
|Keywords:||植物寄生性線蟲;生物防治;LTM;Streptomyces saraceticus;biological control;LTM;organic amendments;plant-parasitic nematode;Streptomyces saraceticus||Issue Date:||Dec-2006||Publisher:||農業試驗所、中華民國植物病理學會||Related Publication(s):||農業試驗所特刊第124號||Start page/Pages:||171-187||Source:||符合安全農業之病害防治新技術研討會專刊||Conference:||符合安全農業之病害防治新技術研討會
Proceedings of/ the Symposium on New Techniques for Control of Plant Diseases in Safe Agricultural System
Several principles are considered, while developing an effective biological control agent. First is to isolate and screen the most active and effective antagonists. The ecology of the antagonists should be fully understood to help formulating organic amendments that would increase the activities of antagonists after applied to the soil. The antagonists should also be able to control various important plant parasitic nematodes.
A novel baiting type was developed, by using clear plastic tape coating with baiting materials on the sticky side, providing minimum nutrients for organisms to compete in the soil. This method had baited isolates of nematodes trapping fungi (Arthrobotrys spp., Dacylella spp., Dactylaria spp.) and Streptomyces saraceticus that are more effective than those baited by the other two methods. Baiting bag technique was the only method that able to isolate predatory nematodes and mites. In the pot tests, six antagonists were tested, Streptomyces saraceticus and Pasteuria penetrans significantly reduced the population of Meloidogyne incognita population in the soil and the disease index on the water spinach. Since P. pentrans was difficult to be propagated in the laboratory, S. saraceticus became the main focus for developing a new biological control agent.
S. saraceticus developed well in loamy sand, sandy loam and red soil and the pH value ranging from 5 to 8. Adding S. saraceticus alone or mixed with 0.2% crab shell powder could significantly reduce second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita in soil and the egg mass on the roots of water spinach. Consequently, the fresh weight of above-ground plant was increased. Fourteen organic wastes were tested, among them, crab shell powder, soybean powder, castor pomace, marine algae powder, rice bran or molasses amended in the soil was able to increase the population of S. saraceticus. The by products decomposed from saw dust, rice bran and pig dung could paralyze the J2 of M. incognita, while castor pomace, chicken dung and crab shell powder were lethal to the nematodes. Castor pomace alone could inhibit hatching rates of egg masses or dispersed eggs. The amendment of marine algae powder modified the roots of host plant and reduce attraction of M. incognita J2 to 36.0%, Tylenchulus semipenetrans to 30.1%, P. coffeae to 44.0% and Paratylenchus curvitatus to 35.0%. Based on the results, a mixture of 40% crab shell powder, 40% castor pomace, 5% soybean powder, 10% marine algae powder and 5% molasses was formulated and named Lively Tiller Mixture (LTM).
S. saraceticus was able to significantly reduced (P=0.05) the population of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, Pratylenchus coffeae and Paratylenchus cruvitatus in green house trails. The LTM mixed with S. saraceticus applied at 2000 kg/ha rate, reduced root-knot nematode populations in the vine yard significantly (P=0.05). The root knot indices and disease indices reduced 47.5 and 67.8% respectively at summer harvest and 42.8, 69.5% at winter harvest. The treatment also increased cluster weight and sugar content to 57, 76 grams and 3, 5 Brix at the two harvest seasons respectively. Antinematodal properties were enhanced when LTM-S. saraceticus mixture was applied for two years continuously.
The LTM-S. saraceticus mixture treatment provided the same controlling level as nematicides, but LTM-S. saraceticus mixture provided more vigorous growth among the declined citrus plants compared to nematicide treatments. LTM-S. saraceticus mixture reduced the population of T. semipenetrans and P. coffeae 94.1 and 63.6% compared to the control. Application of LTM-S. saraceticus mixture also significantly (P=0.05) reduced root-knot disease on African daisy and bitter gourd compared to the 3% Carbofuran G. treatment.
|Appears in Collections:||植物病理組|
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