|Title:||昆蟲桿狀病毒殺蟲劑之研究：生物技術之應用||Other Titles:||The Studies of Baculovirus Insecticide: Application of Biotechniques||Authors:||王重雄
|Keywords:||桿狀病毒;微生物殺蟲劑;生物技術;baculovirus;microbial insecticide;biotechnique||Issue Date:||Jun-1996||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Related Publication(s):||農業試驗所特刊第57號||Start page/Pages:||193-202||Source:||植物保護新科技研討會專刊||Conference:||植物保護新科技研討會
Proceeding of A Symposium on New Techniques of Plant Protection
昆蟲病毒中，以含雙股環狀DNA 基因組之桿狀病毒最具有應用於生物防治之潛力，其優點除了寄主域狹窄（尤其對脊椎動物不具感染力）外，並不需考慮會造成環境污染和昆蟲抗性產生之問題。然而此病毒之應用仍受限於一些因素，諸如施用之時機、病毒致病力、大量生產以及施用後病毒殘留的問題。自然界所發生的桿狀病毒經體外培養過程，可利用病毒斑分析法(plaque assay)或限數稀釋法(limiting dilution)從各地收集之病毒選殖出高致病力之病毒株，並經形態、生化及DNA圖譜之特徵研究以及生物檢定，以確保病毒株致病力的穩定。再則利用桿狀病毒表現載體(baoulovirus expression vector system)方法，將昆蟲之特異性激素或酵素基因及毒素蛋白基因，銜入桿狀病毒基因組內，期所構築的重組病毒能增強致病力及縮短致病時間“桿狀病毒如同其他昆蟲病原體經體外培養後亦有致病力趨弱的現象，因此大量體外增殖的研究，除了儘可能降低培養基及設備（生物反應器等）的成本外，致病力的維持亦須考慮。倘若以蟲體大量增殖，雖不需顧慮有致病力趨弱的現象，然而健康蟲體之獲得必須發展出快速且靈敏的病原檢測方法，以確保病毒之品質。
Several entomopathogens offer the opportunity for use as control agents of certain insect pest species. Baculoviruses containing a double-strands, circular DNA have a high potential for this purpose. The benefit of baculovirus as a microbial control agent has not only a restricted host range but also less evocation of pollution in the environment and the development of resistance in the insect population. The application of this pathogen has been limited several factors, such as application time, virulence, mass production and persistence of virus. The high virulent strains of baculoviruses from the nature infected larvae origin can be cloned in vitro by plaque assay or limiting dilution method, thereafter the cloned virus shall be characterized by morphological, biochemical, DNA profile, and bioassay techniques for ensuring the quality of products. Baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) has been used to reconstruct the viral genome for increasing the virulence of virus. Insect specific hormones, enzymes and even toxin genes had been inserted into baculovirus DNA by BEVS with the prediction of increasing virulence and decreasing the infected time, As the other entomopathogens, the virulence of baculovirus will be declined after serial passage in vitro. Therefore the maintenance of viral virulence as well as the studies of mass production including the development of media and bioreactor are major subjects in further studies. Based on the virulence of baculovirus, in vivo multiplication of baculovirus is better than in vitro. The high quality of microbial insecticides must be come from the inoculated insects that are free from other pathogen contamination, so the development of rapid diagnosis method for entomopathogens is necessary for this purpose.
|Appears in Collections:||植物病理組|
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