|Title:||無病毒紅豆種子之研發、推廣與展望||Other Titles:||Research development, extension and prospects of applying virus-free seeds for the control of virus diseases of asparagus beans in Taiwan||Authors:||張清安
|Keywords:||豇豆;病毒病;種子帶毒;無病毒種子;asparagus bean;virus;virus-free seed;control||Issue Date:||Sep-2002||Publisher:||中華民國植物病理學會||Journal Volume:||11||Journal Issue:||3||Start page/Pages:||107-111||Source:||植物病理學會刊||Abstract:||
豇豆【Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. sesquipedalis (L.) Verde.】為台灣夏季重要之豆類蔬菜。栽培過程中極易罹患病毒病而影響豆莢之產量與品質。黑眼豇豆嵌紋病毒(Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, BlCMV)及胡瓜嵌紋病毒(Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV)是危害台灣豇豆之二種最主要病毒。感病植株之部分種子會帶有病毒，發芽後即成為田間初次感染源，再經人員操作及蚜蟲媒介即可造成病害之流行，進而影響植株之生長與結莢。農試所過去由豇豆品系『三尺青皮』之植株中以BICMV及CMV之抗血清篩選出無病毒單株，再栽培於網室中採收種子而成為無病毒原原種。嗣後由種苗繁殖改良場續以田間網室大量採種供農民栽培。以此模式所生產之種子經抗血清檢定證實不再帶有上述二病毒。所生產之無病毒種子共進行四次田間栽培比較試驗，結果發現，栽植農民自行保留之帶病毒種子試區，於採收末期其病毒病發病率均已達到100%，而栽植無病毒豇豆種子試區之病毒病發病率僅為30-72%，顯示具有明顯延遲病毒病發生之效果。各無病毒種子試區之產量不僅較對照試區提高，而且所生產之可莢平均莢重及長度也有顯著增加。無病毒或豆種子於1993年起正式在當時之省政府農林廳經費補助下，開始於全省幾個重要豇豆產區推廣種植，由於減輕及延遲病毒病發生之效果顯著，除產量品質與收益均有顯著提升外，該豇豆品系之園藝性狀也受到農民之認同與肯定，因此無病毒豇豆種子呈供不應求之現象。各地需求量口益增加，截至2001年為止，推廣豇豆而積總計達824公頃，共供應4944公斤之無病毒種子。本文除介紹過去此豇豆無病毒種子之研發與推廣過程外，並對其推廣成功之因素加以檢討，另外也針對豇豆病毒病之防治，提出現階段所而臨之問題與未來需進
Asparagus bean [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. Sesquipedalis (L.) Verdc.] is an important legume vegetable in Taiwan especially in hot and wet summer months. Virus disease has been recognized as one of the limiting factors for asparagus bean production on this island. There are two viruses, i.e. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BlCMV) reported as the two major viruses occurring in asparagus beans in Taiwan. Dual infection of CMV and BlCMV in asparagus bean plants can stimulate a synergistic effect that results higher accumulation of virus concentration in host tissue and eventually develops stronger symptoms than those of singly infected plants. Both viruses are seed-borne and can be transmitted by mechanical injury and by aphid vectors with non-persistent manner. In general, the seed-borne percentage of BlCMV in seeds collected from infected asparagus bean plants is about 10%, while that for CMV is lower. Experience accumulated in the past indicates that the seed-borne BlCMV inoculum is the key factor for the epidemic of the disease. Therefore, in 1980 a research project was
organized in Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute in attempt to produce virus-free asparagus bean seeds and to test its feasibility to control asparagus bean virus disease. An asparagus bean cultivar "San-Tse-Chin-Pi" was selected for the production of virus-free seeds because its horticultural characteristics. In cooperation with Taiwan seed improvement and propagation station, a large-scaled seed production system was subsequently developed in 1991. In 1991-1992 the research team conducted four field trials in different areas to test the effect of virus-free seeds in reducing the virus disease epidemics. The results indicated that
the application not only significantly delayed the disease epidemic but also increased the yield and quality of bean pods and in turns improved the profit of the growers. In the field experiments, as low as 30-72% of final virus incidences was recorded in those fields planting with virus-free seeds comparing with 100% of infection in those fields planting with commercial seed lots. Since 1993, planting of virus-free seeds has been routinely implemented in the integrated pest control program of asparagus bean in various production areas in Taiwan. Because of the consistent and significant control effect, the virus-free asparagus bean seeds have become more and more popular in Taiwan with time. From 1993 to 2001, the total acreage of asparagus bean fields in Taiwan ever planting with virus-free seeds is about 824 hectares in which consume a total of 4944 kg virus-free seeds produced by this program.
|Appears in Collections:||植物病理組|
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