|Title:||溫濕度及添加物對百合白絹病之影響||Other Titles:||Effects of temperature, moisture and amendments on the occurrence of lily southern blight caused by Scierotium rolfsii Sacc||Authors:||杜金池
|Keywords:||百合白絹病;接種源密度;溫度;土壤濕度;含氮化合物;有機質;lily;Scierotium rolfsii;inoculum density;temperature;soil moisture;nitrogen compound;organic matter||Issue Date:||Jun-1991||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||80-94||Conference:||土壤病原生態與防治研討會專刊||Abstract:||
百合白絹病係由Scierotium rolfsii Sacc.所引起，以人工接種風乾菌核於種球周圍土壤1公分內，得知5粒菌核（接種源密度為2.6個菌核／100立方公分土壤）即可使百合出現黃化病徵，且被害度會隨著菌核接種數目的增加而增加。適合本菌菌核發芽之溫度為20~28℃，若菌核和植株先經20℃處理再移置於28℃下，不但可提高其發芽率且可使百合易於遭受白絹病之為害。最適本菌菌核發芽和菌絲生長之水分潛勢為-1～-10 bars，低於-20 bars時會降低其發芽率和生長速率。當溫度由20℃提高至28℃時，無論土壤含水量為15或30%(W/W)，在接種四星期後，百合白絹病被害度均達0.81，只是在15％土壤含水量下病勢進展較快速。各種化合物在土壤中抑制菌核發芽之能力以含氮化合物為佳，亞硝酸鈉在含氮量125 ppm時可完全抑制菌核核發芽，碳酸氫銨在250 ppm，尿素和碳酸銨在500 ppm，而醋酸銨和檸檬酸銨需高達1000 ppm才可完全抑制其發芽。土壤中添加1% (W/W)之幾丁質、米糠、蔗渣、牛糞和太空包廢棄堆肥等可抑制菌核發芽，其中以幾丁質效果最佳；且添加0.5%(W/W)幾丁質最能抑制病害發生，其次是1% (W/W)米糠和牛糞堆肥。關於無機化合物和有機添加物對本菌和病害之影響，文中有詳盡之討論。
Lily southern blight was caused by Scierotium rolfsii Sacc. When 5 dried scierotia (Inoculum density about 2.6 sclerotia per 100 cm3 of soil) were inoculated into soil around the bulb of lily within 1 cm, the yellowing symptom appeared within 2 weeks. Moreover, the disease severity increased gradually with increasing the number of scierotia. On soil plate, the maximum scierotial germination occurred at 20-28℃. The percentage of germination increased when the scierotia were incubated under drying condition for 3 days at 20℃ and then remoistened and placed at 28℃. Consistently, the greater disease severity was obtained when the lily plants were transferred into the 28℃ condition after 1 week of incubation under 20℃. In general, the best solute water potential for scierotial germination and mycellal growth was between -1 and -10 bars. However, with decreasing of solute water potential from -10 to -50 bars, the percentage of germination and growth rate decreased. Under the condition when tested plants were transferred from 20 to 28℃ , the disease severity at both soil moisture treatments (15 and 30% MHC) was 0.81 aftet 4 weeks of inoculation, however, the disease development was faster at 15% than at 30% MHC. Among 21 tested chemical compounds that were amended to soil at 1% (W/W) rate, nitrogen compounds showed more inhibitory to the germination of scierotia on soil plate than others. Sodium nitrite could completely inhibit the germination at 125 ppm nitrogen (N), ammonium bicarbonate at 250 ppm N, urea and ammonium carbonate at 500 ppm N. Ammonium acetate and ammonium citrate at 1000 ppm N also inhibited the germination completely. The percentage of scierotial germination was decreased when 1% (W/W) chitin, chaff, bagasse, cattle manure or waste of sawdust compost used for mushroom growing was amended to soil. Moreover, the disease severity also was decreased after amendment with 0.5% (W/W) chitin, 1% (W/W) chaff or cattle manure. The effects of inorganic salts and organic matters on Scierotium rotfsii and on the disease were discussed.
|Appears in Collections:||植物病理組|
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