|Title:||近年來本省Rhizoctonia屬病原真菌研究之回顧||Other Titles:||A Review on the Research of Plant Pathogenic Rhizodonla in Recent Year. in Taiwan||Authors:||杜金池
|Keywords:||Rhizoctonia sloani;分類;生態;寄主範圍;生物及化學防治;Rhizoctonia solam;classification;ecology;host range;biological and chemical controls||Issue Date:||Sep-1983||Publisher:||中華植病保護學會||Journal Volume:||25||Journal Issue:||4||Start page/Pages:||213-229||Source:||植物保護學會會刊||Abstract:||
Rhizoctonia屬以R. corcorum為標準種，而以R. solani引起的植物病害最為重要。目前R. solani分為5個菌絲融合群，分別以AG 1~5表示之。R. solani之有性世代一般認為是Thanatephorus cucumeris，但Tu and Kimbrough認為AG 1是T. sasakii，而AG 4亦曾被命名為T. praticola。R. solani各菌絲融合群有性世代之歸屬與分類，日前尚無定論，應進一步研究澄清。
Rhizoctonia solani是初級或兼性寄生菌(Primative or facultative parasite)，腐生能力頗強，在旱田土壤內30~60公分深之植物殘體內，仍可發現其生存。在土中的族群密度會隨著季節而變化，亦因輪作制度及土壤狀況而發生差異。在水田內乾田期間R. solani之分佈以土壤表面最多，又最宜生存。積水期間R. sloani在田間之分佈受風之吹向較灌溉水之流向影更大。R. solani之發病條件因作物之株齡，環境條件如溫度、土壤濕度及土中植物殘體或有機質之多寡及種類而異。
Rhizoctonia solani is the most important plant pathogen In the form-genus Rhizoctonia. The fungus attacks rice, numerous dry-land crops, vegetables. and fruit trees resulting in the decrease of yield. This paper provides information on research progress of R. solani in Taiwan.
The form-genus Rhizoctonia was established with R. corcorum as type species in 1815. R. solani has been known as the most important pathogenic Rhizoclonia since Kuhn found it associated with potato root in 1858. R. solani has been divided into five anastomosis groups, known as AG 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Although Thanatephorus cucumeris is commonly recognized as the sexual state of R. solani, Tu and Kimbrough established T. sasakil as the sexual state of R. solarn AG 1 in 1978. Besides, T. praticola was announced as the sexual state of R. solani AG 4 in 1956. However, there is still no final conclusion on the controversy on the sexual state of different anastomosis groups of R. solani, especially on R. solani AG 1.
Rhisoctonia solani is known as a primative or facultative parasite with a rather strong competative asprophytic ability. It has been found to survive in the plant debries 30-60cm deep in soil. The field population of the fungus is influciiced by the season, rotation system, and soil condition. R. solani survives mostly on the soil surface in the paddyfield. Its distribution is greatly influenced by the wind direction. The outbreak of Rhizoctonia disease Is determined by various factors, such as plant-age, temperature, soil ar.oisture, and the quantity and quality of plant debries and organic matters in soil.
For the control of Rhizoctonia diseases, efforts have been concentrated on the chemical control. Au arsenic compound “Tuzct” was first recommended for the control of rice sheath blight in 1958. Since then numerous fungicides have been recommended. Soil treatment and seed dressing were used for the control of Rhizocionia diseases of crops except rice. Search of varieties resistant to Rhizoctonia diseases on rice and various economic host plants have been done, but commercial resistant varieties have not been obtained yet. Efforts have also been paid on the biological control of the disease, however, more studies is needed in this field.
|Appears in Collections:||植物病理組|
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