|Title:||Xylella fastidiosa 的媒介昆蟲生態學與傳病機制||Other Titles:||Ecology and transmission mechanism of leafhoppers vectoring Xylella fastidiosa||Authors:||段淑人
|Keywords:||木質部難養菌;傳病機制;傳播率;褐透翅尖頭葉蟬;葡萄皮爾氏病;梨葉緣焦枯病;Xylella fastidiosa;Mechanism of transmission;Transmission efficacy;Homalodisca vitripennis;Pierce's disease;Pear leaf scorch||Issue Date:||Jul-2011||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||51-61||Source:||農業試驗所特刊第152號||Conference:||農作物害蟲及其媒介病害整合防治技術研討會專刊||Abstract:||
果樹木質部難養菌病害中最受矚目的即是由 Xylella fastidiosa 引起的細菌性病害，此菌為革蘭氏陰性且端部長有纖毛。它侷限於植物木質部導管中繁殖，並造成水份阻塞而產生植物急速缺水、焦枯的病徵。全球重要的經濟果樹病害如葡萄皮爾氏病 (Pierce's disease) 及柑桔斑駁黃化病 (citrus variegated chlorosis)
即由此菌造成。褐透翅尖頭葉蟬 (Homalodisca vitripennis) 入侵美國加州後，即成為皮爾氏病的主要媒介昆蟲，因其具有長距離遷移的能力、雜食性及高發生率，可加速皮爾氏病的擴散，對美國釀酒葡萄產業造成巨大的威脅。近年來我國亦於中部橫山梨園區發現此菌造成梨葉緣焦枯病 (pear leaf scorch) 的案例，經由田間
Xylella fastidiosa Wells (Xanthomonadales: Xanthomonadaceae)is a gram- negative and pili-forming bacterial pathogen. The fastidious bacterium colonizes only in xylem tissues and hence causes diseases by blocking water passages in many economically important hosts. The most famous diseases are Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC). The glassy-winged sharpshooter leafhopper, Homalodisca vitripennis Germar (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylophagous insect that is an endemic pest of several economically important plants. H. vitripennis has been a major vector of PD in southeastern United States for decades, and has become an important vector of PD in California after its introduction in 1990.
Because of its ability for long distance movements, polyphagous behavior, and high frequency of occurrence, it had put much of USA grape production at risk. Recently, this bacterium was reported to cause pear leaf scorch (PLS) disease in central Taiwan.
Based on the results of filed inspections and molecular detections, Kolla paulula has been considered as the candidate vector for PLS disease. In order to control diseases caused by X. fastidiosa, the following factors should be well understood: the characteristics of the pathogen, the susceptible and alternative host plants, the biology and ecology of candidate vectors, the favorable environmental conditions for the pathogens and the vectors. In this article, the ecology of the vectors and their transmission efficacies and mechanism will be discussed.
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