|Title:||抗蟲基因轉殖植物之類別與其對環境中昆蟲類之影響||Other Titles:||Insect-resistant Transgenic Plants and the Environmental Impact Assessment--Special Concern for Insects||Authors:||王清玲
Wang, C. L.
Lin, F. C.
Lin, C. Y.
|Keywords:||抗蟲基因轉殖植物;類別;環境風險;昆蟲;insect-resistant transgenic crop;group;environmental impact;insect)||Issue Date:||Sep-2004||Publisher:||中華植物保護學會||Journal Volume:||46||Journal Issue:||3||Start page/Pages:||181-209||Source:||植物保護學會會刊||Abstract:||
Insecticidal substances produced in transgenic crops for insect resistance can
generally be divided into 4 groups, δ-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), lectins,
enzyme inhibitors and enzymes. The δ-endotoxin major toxic substance of Bt. The
gene for the endotoxin from Bt is inserted into plants to produce insect-resistant crops.
The most common modifications of crops are to insert the cry1 gene for the control of
lepidopterans and to insert the cry3 gene for coleopterans. Since 1995, the main lectin
studied has been the snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). The gene
is inserted to produce proteins in tobacco, potato, rice, and wheat which inhibit the
growth of insect pests such as moths, aphids, and hoppers. Enzyme inhibitors include
protease inhibitors and α-amylase inhibitors. Genetically modified rice, wheat,
tobacco, and potatoes with protease inhibitors show various degrees of resistance to
leaf hoppers and lepidopteran larvae. Research has mainly been conductedα-Amylase
inhibitors on beans for resistance to bean weevils. Enzymes include chitinase and
cholesterol oxidase. Transgenic crops with a chitinase-producing gene which is found
in microorganisms to insects show resistance to their pest insects. Such food injures
the peritropic membrane of the midgut of the target insect and hence normal food
consumption and nutrition absorption are disturbed. Cholesterol oxidase isolated from
bacteria reduces the growth rates of insects by destroying cell membranes in the
digestive tract. Among the transgenic crops with the above insecticidal substances, Bt
crops such as Bt cotton, Bt corn, and Bt potatoes have been commercially cultivated
in large areas.
|Appears in Collections:||應用動物組|
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