|Title:||蔬菜斑潛蠅 (Liriomyza sativae Blanchard) (雙翅目：潛蠅科) 之形態、生活史及生命表||Other Titles:||Morphology, life history and life table of Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae)||Authors:||錢景秦
|Keywords:||蔬菜斑潛蠅;生活史;生命表;菜豆;溫度;Liriomyza sativae;life history;life table;field bean;temperature||Issue Date:||Sep-2007||Publisher:||台灣昆蟲學會||Journal Volume:||27||Journal Issue:||3||Start page/Pages:||207-227||Source:||台灣昆蟲||Abstract:||
本試驗以菜豆苗 (Phaseolus vulgaris var. communis Aeachers) 飼育蔬菜斑潛蠅 (Liriomyza sativae Blanchard)，除觀察該蠅之形態與生活史外，並研究蜂蜜、交尾及溫度等對其族群增長之影響。該蠅之羽化、交尾及產卵與老熟幼蟲鑽出葉片等活動均主要發生於上午。羽化當日、第二及第三日成蠅之交尾率分別為 28.9、66.9 及 4.2%。雌、雄蠅皆可多次交尾。在 25°C 下未交尾雌蠅餵食蜂蜜時雖可產 15 粒卵，但均不孵化；而已交尾雌蠅未餵食蜂蜜時，其壽命、有活力卵數及取食刻點數均顯著低於餵食蜂蜜者。雌蠅自取食孔取食或由產卵孔取食。雌蠅在豆苗之真葉與複葉上產卵或取食時，均對豆苗之真葉具顯著偏好性。於 15～30°C 時，因孵化率與幼蟲存活率各高達 95.2～100 與 81.1～97.3%，因而可利用豆葉內第三齡幼蟲數估算該蠅之產卵數。第三齡幼蟲之取食隧道長度各為第一與第二齡幼蟲之 5.1 與 2.9 倍。卵至蛹期之發育臨界低溫為 11.1°C，卵、幼蟲、蛹及卵至蛹期之發育有效積溫各為 42、78、133 及 236 日度。餵食純蜂蜜時，30°C 雖為該蠅族群增長最大之溫度，此時雌性有活力卵數之每日內在增殖率為 0.2358，但 20°C 卻為該蠅最適繁殖之溫度，此時每雌產下雌性有活力卵數之淨增殖率為 46.061 粒。該蠅最佳飼育條件為在 20°C 定溫下、每日供食純蜂蜜、並以 15～20 cm 高去除複葉之菜豆苗供其產卵。
The morphology, life history, and the effect of honey, mating and temperature on the population growth rate of the leafminer, Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, were studied in the laboratory with field bean, Phaseolus vulgaris var. communis Aeschers, as host plant. Results indicated that emergence, mating, and oviposition of adults as well as larvae emerging from leaves all took place primarily in the morning. The mating rate reached 95.8% on the 2nd day. Males and females mated more than once. At 25°C, unmated females fed with honey could lay 15 infertile eggs. Mated females without honey supply had significant lower values in longevity, fecundity and number of feeding stipples than those fed with honey. Females fed from all punctures regardless of oviposition. Females had a significant preference for laying their eggs and feeding on primary leaf to trifoliate leaf of field bean. The number of third instars within the mesophyll could be used to estimate the oviposition of the leafminer between 15-30°C due to the high survival rate of egg stage (95.2-100%) and larval stage (81.1-97.3%). The mine length increased as the larva grew. The mine length of third instars was 5.1- and 2.9-fold longer than that of first and second instars, respectively. The lower developmental threshold was estimated to be 11.1°C for the development from egg to pupal stage. L. sativae required 42, 78, 133 and 236 degree-days, respectively, to complete the egg, larval, pupal and total immature stages. The maximum intrinsic rate of L. sativae was observed at 30°C (rm = 0.2358/ day) when honey is provided. The maximal net reproductive rate was observed at 20°C (Ro = 46.061 viable female eggs). The optimal conditions for rearing L. sativae is using field bean of 15-20 cm tall with a daily supply of honey at 20°C.
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