|Title:||溫度對異角釉小蜂 (膜翅目：釉小蜂科) 族群增長與致死寄主能力之影響||Other Titles:||Influence of Temperature on Both Population Increase and Host-killing Capability of Hemiptarsenus varicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)||Authors:||錢景秦
|Keywords:||異角釉小蜂;非洲菊斑潛蠅;溫度;族群增長;致死寄主能力;Hemiptarsenus varicornis;Liriomyza trifolii;temperature;population increase;host-killing capability||Issue Date:||Jun-2004||Publisher:||台灣昆蟲學會||Journal Volume:||24||Journal Issue:||2||Start page/Pages:||91-105||Source:||台灣昆蟲||Abstract:||
於10、15、20、25、30及35℃下進行溫度對異角釉小蜂 (Hemiptarsenus varicornis (Girault)) 族群增長與致死寄主能力之影響。得知該蜂發育適溫帶為15至35℃，其間卵至成蟲期之存活率與發育日數各為90.9～96.3% 與7.0～54.0日，而10℃時蜂卵之孵化率為0。卵至成蟲期之發育臨界低溫為11.97℃。卵、幼蟲、前蛹、蛹及卵至成蟲期之發育有效積溫各為16、46、9、81及152日度。於15～35℃定溫下每日供應40～50隻非洲菊斑潛蠅第三齡幼蟲時，該蜂一生致死寄主總數與溫度呈二次迴歸關係，最大估測值為25.4℃時之372隻；但在25℃下繁殖之異角釉小蜂移至30與35℃時，該蜂一生致死寄主之實測值竟各高達611與651隻。雌蜂一生寄生致死寄主數與取食致死寄主數之比例與溫度呈二次迴歸關係，最大估測值為24.9℃時之0.72:1。子代雌性比與溫度亦呈二次迴歸關係，最大估測值為23.8℃時之0.71。在25℃時，雌蜂每日內在增殖率 (r) 為0.2337，淨增殖率 (R0) 為121隻雌蜂／雌蜂，平均世代時間 (T-) 為20.52日。於15～35℃定溫、每日僅以未稀釋蜂蜜餵食、無寄主供應時，雌、雄蜂壽命均隨溫度之上升而縮短，兩者間呈直線迴歸關係，其最大估值各為15℃時之38與36日；但每日以未稀釋蜂蜜餵食、且有寄主供應時，雌、雄蜂壽命與溫度間則均呈二次迴歸關係，其最大估值各為22.6℃時之19日與23.7℃時之13日。
The ifluence of temperature on both population increase and host-killing capability of Hemiptarsenus varicornis (Girault) was studied at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35℃. H. varicornis completed their development between 15 and 35℃. In this temperature range, its survival rate and development period from egg to adult was 90.9-96.3% and 7.0-54.0 days, respectively. But its hatch rate was 0% at 10℃. A lower developmental threshold was estimated to be 11.97℃ for development from egg to adult. H. varicornis required 16, 46, 9, 81, and 152℃-days, respectively, to complete the egg, larval, prepupal, pupal, and egg to adult stages. When 40-50 third-instar larvae of Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) were provided daily for a pair of H. varicornis between 15-35℃ at 5℃ intervals, the relationship between temperature and the total number of hosts killed formed a quadratic regression. Accordingly, the maximum number of hosts killed was estimated to be 372 at 25.4℃; However, when wasps reared at 25℃ during the immature stages were then transferred to 30 or 35℃ after emergence, the parasitism and feeding tests showed total numbers of hosts killed of 611 and 651 larvae, respectively. The relationship between temperature and the ratio of number of lifetime host parasitized over lifetime host feeding fitted to a quadratic regression, as was the relationship between temperature and the female progeny ratio. The estimated maximum values of the former ratio and the latter one were 0.72:1 at 24.9℃ and 0.71 at 23.8℃, respectively. At 25℃, the intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproductive rate (Ro), and mean generation time (T) were 0.2337/day, 121 female wasps/female, and 20.52 days, respectively. When adults were fed daily with pure honey only between 15 and 35℃, the relationship between temperature and longevity of females or males showed a linear regression and the estimated maximum longevity of females and males was 38 and 36 days at 15℃, respectively. For those fed pure honey and provided with hosts, the relationship between temperature and longevity of females or males formed a quadratic regression, and the estimated maximum longevity of females and males was 19 days at 22.6℃ and 13 days at 23.7℃, respectively.
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