|Title:||Present Status of Biological Control of Mite Pests in Taiwan||Other Titles:||臺灣害蟎生物防治之現況||Authors:||Paul Kang-Chen Lo
|Keywords:||Biological control;Citrus red spider mite;citrus rust mite;European red spider mite;kanzawa spider mite;two-spotted spider mite;deciduous fruit trees;mulberry;tea;strawberry;生物防治;柑桔葉蟎;柑桔锈蟎;歐洲葉蟎;神澤葉蟎;二點葉蟎;溫帶果樹;桑樹;茶;草莓||Issue Date:||Sep-1986||Publisher:||植病保護學會||Journal Volume:||28||Journal Issue:||1||Start page/Pages:||31-39||Source:||植物保護學會會刊||Abstract:||
There are more than fifty species of spider mites have been recorded in Taiwan. The following species are considered the major pests on their host plants, i. e. citrus red spider mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), citrus rust mite. Phyllocoptrula olcisore Ashmead on citrus; two-spotted spider mite, Telranychus urticae (Koch) on deciduous fruit trees and strawberry; european red spider mite. P. ulnii (Koch) on deciduous fruit trees; kanzawa spider mite, T. kanzawai Kishida on tea, strawberry and mulberry. Thirty species of native predators were recorded, including 14 species predatory insects and 16 species of predatory mites. Stethorus loi Sasaji, Oligota cwiformis (Casey), Arthrocnodax occidentalis Felt., Amblyssius iongispipinosus (Evans). A. womrsleyi Schicha, A. ovolis (Evans), and A. htrbicolus (Chant) were identified as more important ones.
The infestation of citrus red mite is becoming rather severe in citrus orchards since its beneficial predators are sacrified by the extensive and frequent use of insecticides. A serious damage to citrus fruit caused by citrus rust mite. Recently, it was found commonly infested by an entornogenous fungus, Hirsulella thompsonii Fish. The fungus mycelia were used for field spray in order to evaluate its pathogenicity and effectiveness in the rust mite control. Encouraged results were obtained.
Five species of Amblysrirts mites associated with kanzawa spider mite in the mulberry groves. Field distribution pattern of A. womersleryi did match kanrawa spider mite population distribution. A. womersleyi was evaluated as the best biocontrol agent for kanzawa spider mite population. Mass releases of this predators to the mulberry groves, bringing about satisfactory control.
Kanzawa spider mite and two spotted spider mite also attack strawberry in Taiwan. Mass releases of A. longispinosrs resulted is an overall 85% reduction in the kanzawa spider mite population after 4 weeks initial releases. But for two-spotted spider mits, it gave poor control results. Recently, a new phytoseiid, A. californicus (McGregor) has been introduced from Hawaii, this predatory mite is relatively easy to mass-rear. Plots in which predators were primarily mass released had established and lower populations of T. urticae. Further field colonization is now in progress.
Kanzawa spider mite also can be serious pest in Taiwan tea plants. In some fields the predatory mite, A. longispinosns is an effective predator of the kanzawa spider mite. Pesticides used to control the tea insect pests can disrupt this biological control. 10 insecticides were used to select the predators which were collected from different locations and plants, and selected this predators for resistance to carhamates, organophosphates and pyrethoids in the laboratory and obtained dirnetboate, dimethoate-carbaryl and carbaryl resistant strains. Mass release and field colonization is now in progress.
Two-spotted spider mite and european red spider mite are newly invaded mite pests. Because they also readily develop resistance to pesticides, effective biological control is especially desirable, Recently, .Amblyseius fallacis (Garnan) and A. californicus (McGrogor) were imported from Michigan and Hawaii, respectively, as potential biological control agent of both spider mites on deciduous fruit trees. Mass-rear is now in progress.
臺灣現有記錄之葉蟎類超過50種，但其中以在柑桔之柑桔葉蟎(Panonychus citri(McGegor))和柑桔锈蟎(Phyllocoptruta oleivora Ashmead)，溫帶果樹之二點葉蟎(Tetranychus urticae Koch)和歐洲葉蟎(Panonychus ulmi Koch)，茶樹、草莓及桑樹上神澤葉蟎(Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida)及草莓上的二點葉蟎最為重要。而葉蟎之天敵也有30種之多，其中14種屬捕食性昆蟲，另16種則屬捕食性蟎類，其中以羅氏小黑瓢蟲(Stethorus loi Sasaji)，小黑隱翅蟲(Oligota oviformis (Casey))
，西方癭蠅(Arthrocnodas occidentalis Felt.)，長毛捕植蟲(Amblyseius longispinosus (Evans))，溫氏捕植蟎(A. womersleyi Schicha)，卵形捕植蟎(A. avails (Evans))及大形捕植蟲(A. herbicolus (Chant))等7種最為最要。
二點葉蟎及歐洲葉蟎為二種入侵本省之害蟎，而本省缺乏有效之天敵可予壓抑，又此二葉蟎之抗藥性又高，藥劑防治極為困難，故近來又引進加州捕植蟎及法拉斯捕桔蠟(Amblyseius fallacis (Garlnan))，對此二葉蟎均屬強有力之天敵，大量繁殖及釋放正在進行中。
|Appears in Collections:||應用動物組|
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.