|Title:||用藥劑處理幹部樹皮防除柑橘害蟲研究||Other Titles:||STUDIES ON BARK TREATMENT AGAINST CITRUS INSECTS||Authors:||陶家駒
Charles Chia-chu Tao
|Keywords:||藥劑防治;柑橘害蟲||Issue Date:||Dec-1969||Publisher:||植病保護學會||Journal Volume:||11||Journal Issue:||4||Start page/Pages:||143-149||Source:||植物保護學會會刊||Abstract:||
1. 塗布官能殺蟲劑12.5% 水溶性愛速靈（60% azodrin Wsc 1:3）於柑桔苗木砧木，未結果樹幹基部，結果樹主枝基部四周，長及其直徑之3、4倍，當每次發芽時及10~14天後連塗2次，可以保護嫩芽葉及果實，防止潛蛾幼蟲、木蝨、蚜蟲類、粉蝨類、粉介殼蟲類、吹綿介殼蟲類、有殼介殼蟲類、軟體介殼蟲類、林象類、紅蜘蛛類、锈埤等11類主要柑桔害蟲為害，代替常行多量撒布藥劑方法。
The present study was carried cut in Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China, during 1968 and 1969 with 11 kinds of systemic insecticides as bark treatment against citrus insects. First trial was to evaluate some systemic insecticides being used as conventional spray namely dimethoate, fcrmothion (anthio), phos-phamidon (dimecron), metasystox (i), thicmetcn (ekatin), menazcn (sayfos), bidrin, azcdrin, nisscl, amiphcs and moniter (CS6858), each of them was diluted into active ingredient of 12.5, 6.25, 3.125% respectively and painted with Chinese pen on stock bark of grafted crange variety Jaffa and Lung king Kong to control citrus black aphid Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) and citrus leaf miner Phyllocnitis citrella Staitcn getting perfect control except dispersible powder of menazon. Emulsfiable concentrate of remaining systemic insecticides had more or less phytctcxicity like leaf chlcrosis and leaf dropping, but water soluble concentrate was not.
Low toixcity and water soluble concentrate of azcdrin 60% diluted into 12.5% was the first choice as bark treatment for further trials against other major citrus insects beside aphids and citrus leaf miner. Since the extensive field trials, citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, Flcrida red scale Chrysomphalzs ficus Ashmead, green scale Coccis viridis Green, mealy bug Nipaecoccis filament osus Cockerel, fluted scale Icerya pzcrchasi Maskell, spiny white fly Aleurocanths spiniferus Quaintance, citrus stink bug Rhynchocoris hurneralis Thunberg, citrus red mite Panonyciws citri (McGregcr) and citrus rust mite Phyllocoptrda oleivora (Ashmead) were proved also effective.
The proper time of painting was just the first sign of leaf bud formation and 10 to 14 days later making further application. The adaptable site of painting was around stock of nursery tree, basal trunk of nonfruit bearing tree and basal part of main branches of fruit bearing tree as high as 3 times of its diameter with painting brush respectively. Over 600 nonfruit bearing trees were treated since end of July, 1968 to first of October, 1969. After that there was not to be need of mite control again.
Receiving bark treatment citrus grove, the majcr predatcrs and parasites of aphids like Menochilus sexrnaculatus Fabricius, Propylaea iaponica Thunberg, Lemnia swinhoei Crotch, Pseudaspidimerus japonensis Nakane et Arahi and Scymnus (Pullus) sp. (Ccccinellidae, Coleoptiera), Syrphus aegrotis Fabricius and Epitrophe balteatus De Geer (Syrphidae, Diptera), Aphelinus sp. (Aphelinidae, Hymencptera) and Ephedrus persicae Froggatt and Lipolexis gracilis Fcrster (Aphidiidae, Hymencptera), citrus leaf mner as Cirrosiphuls ingenaus Gahan, Tetrastichus sp. (Eulcphidae, Hymencptera), citrus dogs as Trichogramma australicum Girault (Trichogrammatidae, Hymenctera), Telenomus sp. (Scelionidae, Hymencptera), fluted scale as Rhodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) aud R. pumila Weise (Coccinellidae, Coleoptera), mealy bug as Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Mulsant) (Coccinellidae, Colecptera), citrus mite as Steihorus iaponicus Sasaji (Coccinellidae, Coleoptera) and Oligota sp. (Staphylinidae, Colecptera) were found quite often, they worked their preys or hosts very well below
economic level and special control was unnecessary.
Azodrin 12.5% as bark treatment against citrus insects was not only instead of frequency high volume conventicnal spray saving lots of water, labour and spraying equipment but also kinds and amount of insecticides and miticides used. Simplifying control technique and pesticide regulation are benifit to both citrus growers and government but unfortunately making lots trouble of pesticide dealers in near future.
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