|Title:||有機毛豆栽培技術||Other Titles:||Integrated Production Technologies for Organic Vegetable Soybean||Authors:||馬清華
|Issue Date:||Dec-2008||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||61-82||Source:||農業試驗所特刊第136號||Conference:||有機作物栽培技術研討會專刊||Abstract:||
綜合品種試驗顯示：總豆莢產量以台南亞蔬二號最高，其次為高雄九號或芋香毛豆香姬，三種品種之間差異不顯著但均高於高雄六號。台南亞蔬二號之成熟期較長而芋香毛豆香姬成熟期最短。除96 年秋作外，合格莢產量以芋香毛豆香姬最高，其次為台南亞蔬二號或高雄九號，惟三品種間差異不大；芋香毛豆香姬於有機栽培有極高之潛力。97 年春、秋作評估台南選1號芋香毛豆，產量與香姬差異不顯著，亦顯現台南選1 號之栽培潛力。肥培管理方面，不同施肥處理之效果因品種而異，但因施肥總量相似之故而差異不顯著。97 年春作提高有機肥施用量至氮素90-180 公斤，並使用豆粕作為基、追肥，結果顯示不同肥培處理對芋香毛豆香姬或高雄九號總豆莢、合格莢的產量均無顯著差異性影響。
春、秋作主要病害為根腐病及炭疽病，影響合格莢產量最甚者為炭疽病的危害。拮抗微生物製劑Trichoderma spp.等可明顯降低根腐病（Rhizoctonia solani）之罹病率；而微生物製劑Streptomyces spp.則可有效降低炭疽病的發生，亦顯著提昇健康豆莢的百分率。
由每星期例行性的監測毛豆害蟲發現：春、秋季危害豆莢之主要害蟲為白緣螟蛾，而其於有機綜合防治區對豆莢之危害顯著低於放任區；於95 年秋作及96 年春、秋作之放任區合格莢產量分別為綜合防治區合格莢產量之45%、85%、44%左右，顯示有機栽培之綜合蟲害防治管理仍可顯著降低蟲害之影響。
The objective of this research is to develop integrated production technologies for organic vegetable soybean ( OVSB ) to serve as production guidelines for organic farmers in Taiwan. This research adopted a systematic approach; component techniques included variety evaluation, balanced fertilization, disease, pest and weed managements and quality evaluation implemented during 2006-2008.
Among five varieties evaluated, Tainan AV No. 2 ( V2 ) produced the highest total pod yields, followed by Kaohsiung No. 9 （ V9 ） or aromatic flavor variety (V1). However, there were no significant differences among yields of these three varieties but all significantly higher than check variety Kaohsiung No.6. Highest graded pod yields were produced by V1 variety, followed by V2 or V9, but the differences were small compared to total pod yield. In 2008, graded pod yields of local new fragrant variety-Tainan selection No. 1（T1）were lower than yields of V1, but there were not significantly different between two varieties. Growth duration was the longest for V2 and shortest for V1. Both V1 and V9 have great potentials in OVSB production.
Balanced fertilization had established for OVSB production. Pod anthracnose was the key disease, which affected mostly the graded pod yield. Application of bioagent Te Ka De （Tricoderma spp.）in the seeding ditches reduced the severity of Rhizoctonia root rot significantly, while spraying BIO-DEFENDER （Streptomyces spp.）inhibited soybean anthracnose effectively. The healthy pods in treatments applied with bioagent （Streptomyces spp.）was significantly higher than in other treatments. The limabean pod borer was the major pod borer in all trials monitored. The IPM was validated against an untreated Check in the field during 2007-2008. The graded pod yields were higher and pod damages by lima-bean pod border were significantly lower in organic IPM plots than in the check plots. Hence, the developed IPM package has reduced the insect damages significantly and has increased the graded pod yield. Application of vinegar （6% acetic acid）plus one hand weeding on weeds emerged after spray of vinegar in the vinegar-treated plot was necessary to obtain a higher level of weed control and pod yields than the check plot. There were significant effects of seasons, farming systems and varieties on the qualities of organic vegetable soybean.
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