|Title:||建構茭白筍健康管理生產體系||Other Titles:||Establishment of the Production System for Waterbamboo (Zizania latifola Turcz.) Health Management||Authors:||廖君達
|Keywords:||茭白筍;健康管理;技術整合;成本收益分析;Waterbamboo;Health management;Technique integration;Cost-benefit analysis||Issue Date:||Nov-2014||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||144-155||Source:||農業試驗所特刊第181號||Conference:||102年度重點作物健康管理生產體系及關鍵技術之研發成果研討會論文集||Abstract:||
茭白筍 (Zizania latifola Turcz.) 為埔里地區高經濟作物，栽培田區普遍長期連作，生育期間田間經常性湛水，致使農民為使茭白筍能吸收足夠的養分而過量施肥。此外，茭白筍生育中、後期，胡麻葉枯病的為害對於茭白筍產量影響甚劇。臺中區農業改良場針對茭白筍栽培面臨的問題提出相對應的解決對策，兼顧環境、作物、生產者及消費者四贏的思維，期能再開創茭白筍產業新局。102年於南投縣埔里鎮設置茭白筍健康管理區，並以慣行管理區為對照。茭白筍種植前採土樣進行土壤肥力診斷，發現土壤pH值 (4.85) 偏酸性、土壤鈣含量低於參考值。針對上述現象，健康管理示範區施用石灰資材 2,500 kg/ha及含矽資材 3,000 kg/ha。進行土壤改良後，pH 值由 4.85 提高至 5.5，其他土壤肥力特性，均達到正常範圍。茭白筍生育期間，健康管理區肥料施用量N - P2O5 - K2O為398 - 398 - 398 kg/ha，較慣行栽培區肥料施用量的1,313 - 620 - 756 kg/ha，減少915 - 222 - 358 kg/ha。由總施肥量觀之，健康管理區 (2,650kg/ha) 僅為慣行管理區 (7,650kg/ha) 的34.6%，減少65.4% 的施肥量及3次施肥次數。而且，健康管理區全年茭白筍產量 32,540 kg/ha，較慣行栽培區 29,140 kg/ha，增加 340 kg/ha (+11.7%)。施用含矽資材、定期清除老葉及導入非農藥防治資材等，可顯著降低銹病、胡麻葉枯病及長綠飛蝨等對茭白筍的為害。而且，健康管理區茭白筍採樣送農藥所檢驗，確認無農藥殘留。健康管理區節省肥料及人工費，而且茭白筍產量高於慣行管理區，經過成本收益分析，健康管理區全年農家賺款為127,309元/0.1ha，慣行管理區為107,209元/0.1ha，農家賺款增加 20,100元/0.1ha (18.7%)。
Waterbmboo (Zizania latifola Turcz.) is a high economic value cash crop in Puli area. Waterbamboo has been planted more than two decade at the same field and has continuously flooded during the cultivated period. As the high water level in the field, farmers have considered more fertilizers application for waterbamboo need. Otherwise, leaf spot, Helminthosporium zizaniae, of waterbamboo was a seriously disease from the middle to end of cultivated period and let yield loss drastically. Taichung district agricultural research and extension has focused on the major problems as facing the waterbamboo cultivation and raised the opposite resolved strategies. We have considered four directions, included crop, environment, producers and consumers, to build the new situation of waterbamboo industry. The health management area was set up in Puli township, Nantou County in 2013, and customary area as blank. Before waterbamboo seedling planted, the soil had been sampled for soil fertility diagnosis. Results showed that pH value of acidic soil was 4.85, and the amount of Ca was lower than reference value. To resolve the condition, 2,500 kg/ha lime material and 3,000 kg/ha silicon material were applied to soil of health management area to let pH value was adjustment from 4.85 to 5.5, and many soil characters had comeback to normal values. The amount of N-P2O5-K2O was 398 - 398 - 398 kg/ha in health management, less than 1,313 - 620 - 756 kg/ha in customary area, which reduced 915 - 222 - 358 kg/ha application. The number of fertilizer application had decreased 3 times and the amount of fertilizer had reduced 65.4%. Furthermore, the yield of waterbamboo was 32,540 kg/ha in health management area, more than 29,140 kg/ha in customary area, which increased 340 kg/ha, enhanced 11.7% approximately. Otherwise, the older and residue leaves had erased to improvement the airy capacity between waterbamboo plants. The silicon materials had added into soil to enhance the resistant for plant to pests and non-pesticide materials had used to control pest, which had decreased the damage caused by Uromyces coronatus, H. zizaniae, and Saccharosyden procerus, and achieve the goal of non-pesticide residue. The cost of fertilizers and labor in health management area was saving and the yield of harvest was higher than customary area. According the analysis of cost and benefit, the farmer earning was NT$ 127,309/0.1ha in health management area, and NT$ 107,209/0.1ha in customary area. The farmer earning was increased 20,100 NT$/0.1ha, approximately 18.7% in health management area.
|Appears in Collections:||農業化學組|
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