|Title:||蓮霧果園健康管理技術研發及示範推廣||Other Titles:||Research, Demonstration and Extension of Wax Apple Orchard Health Management||Authors:||陳思如
|Keywords:||土壤肥力分析;藥劑篩選;產期調節;草生栽培;Integrated Crop Management||Issue Date:||Dec-2015||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||120-133||Source:||農業試驗所特刊;第188號||Conference:||103年度重點作物健康管理生產體系及關鍵技術之研發成果研討會論文集||Abstract:||
蓮霧為台灣重要熱帶果樹，由於技術門檻高、勞力密集、成本高昂、產量及品質對極端氣候敏感，生產面積逐漸萎縮中。利用各產區的地理優勢、栽植適當的品種、配合果園特性進行產期調節、應用合理化施肥、安全用藥及防災管理，為當前重要的果園管理策略。蓮霧於高溫多濕季節果實病害發生率較高，為減少田間用藥，本研究篩選蓮霧重要果實病害-炭疽病、黃腐病、果腐病及黑腐病之防治藥劑，結果以50%撲克拉錳、39.5%扶吉胺、62.5%賽普護汰寧於實驗室驗證可同時抑制不同病害，於健康管理示範園優先採用上述藥劑、減少用藥量，每分地約可降低用藥成本2,760 元。應用合理化施肥技術改善果實品質方面，根據土壤檢測結果於示範區增加鉀肥施用量，果實成熟時果重顯著較農友慣行區增加11.4%，總可溶性固形物含量提高0.8°Brix；每分地肥料成本雖增加1,830 元，但收益約可增加25,650 元。研究以紅葉滿天星及黃花蜜菜栽植於蓮霧園進行草生栽培，並設置清耕栽培區，結果兩種草生栽培區之土壤總體密度及孔隙度均優於清耕栽培區，土壤有機質含量較清耕栽培區高約0.36%，採收時平均單果重以紅葉滿天星區高於清耕栽培區，而以黃花蜜菜區之果實總可溶性固形物較高且裂果率較低，顯示草生栽培對蓮霧果實品質的提升具正面功效。
Wax apple is an important fruit industry in Taiwan. The fruit production had high technique threshold, labor demand and production cost and the fruit quality was sensitive to extreme climate. Therefore, the production area was decreasing in this decade. Planning a production strategy base on the advantages of each productions areas and selecting suitable cultivars to produce quality fruit in the suitable season of each orchard are the key points of the wax apple production management. Besides, reasonable fertilization, chemical safe use and disaster prevention techniques were also crucial to the health management of wax apple fruit production. The diseases incidence of wax apple fruit diseases increased significantly in hot and humid climate. To reduce the use of pesticides, the objective of this research was to select some pesticides that could be used for controlling fruit diseases such as Botryodiplodia fruit rot (Lasiodiplodia theobromae), anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), Pestalotiopsis fruit rot (Pestalotiopsis eugeniae) and Cylindrocladium fruit rot (Cylindrocladium sp.). The data indicated the 50% prochlorate manganese, 39.5% Fluazinam and 62.5% Cyprodinil + fludioxonil could be used to control the above four diseases simultaneously. Farmers may give priority to select the above three pesticides to control wax apple fruits diseases, to reduce the use of pesticides. The costs could be reduced by up to 2,760 NT dollars per 0.1 hectare. We used smart fertilizer technics to improve the quality of wax apple. We increased the application rate of potassium fertilizer according to soil test results. In our consulting project of smart fertilizer, the fruits weight and soluble soild content are 11.4% and 0.8°Brix higher than that in conventional culture field. Even though the smart fertilizer method increased 1,830 NT dollars cost of fertilizers application per 0.1 hectare, we still increased farmer’s income about 25,650 NT dollars. This studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of different sod culture on siul properties and fruit quality of waxapple. We establish two kinds of sod culture (Alternanthera paronychioides and Wedeliachinensis Merr.) on waxapple orchard. On the other hand, the are of non-sod culture was compered. After one year, we found that soil organic matter in the two sod culture was 0.36% higher than in non-sod culture. The fruit weight was highest in the area of Alternanthera paronychioides sod culture. The splitting fruit of waxapple was lowest in the area of Wedeliachinensis Merr. The results showed that two kind of sod culture were both positive effects for the waxapple.
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