|Keywords:||芒果;深層施肥;灌溉;小黃薊馬;健康管理;整合性管理;Mango;Deep Application of Fertilizer;Irrigation;Scirtothripsdorsalis;Health management;Integrated Production System;Integrated Crop Management||Issue Date:||Dec-2015||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||134-153||Source:||農業試驗所特刊第188號||Conference:||103年度重點作物健康管理生產體系及關鍵技術之研發成果研討會論文集||Abstract:||
臺南轄區的芒果多在山坡地上種植，相對的栽培管理、田間操作困難，導致施行成效不易展現。又，芒果係屬多年生作物，其生產易受環境氣候、樹勢、栽培措施及病蟲害等因子的影響，因此品質或產量相當不穩定，故需要一套由品種選用、栽培技術、肥培、田間規劃等管理策略，同時能達成有效管理病蟲害的整合性管理技術，才能有效的管控果實質、量。針對坡地芒果健康管理技術的導入，首重肥培管理，據2011 年調查統計4 個優良芒果外銷供果園產銷班員其平均年施肥折合複合肥料26 公斤/公頃，施肥嚴重不足。為因應坡地果園施肥不便且能充分發揮肥效，本試驗採用深耕施肥技術，分別於南化田區(低投入區)與玉井田區(高投入區)經二年試驗調整後，最終二試驗區的果實品質包括單果重、果實色澤、可溶性固形物、酸度等深層施肥區與慣行處理間區皆無顯著差異，而南化田區單株採果數處理組137粒/株較慣行處理區128 粒/株高，玉井田區則分別為172 與171 粒/株呈無顯著差異，顯示提昇施肥量及整合性管理有助產量提昇。2014 年為了更能生產安全優質的果品目標，配合肥培管理進行田間灌溉或排水試驗，結果顯示二試區土壤酸鹼度(pH 值)與有機質含量均偏低，除依合理施肥量外均添加苦土石灰，以提昇土壤pH 值，促進養分有效性。葉片檢測資料顯示南化試區除鎂濃度外，其餘元素均較慣行處理區增加，玉井試區除鉀濃度降低外，其餘元素均較農友慣行處理區增加或相同；可知合理施肥促進養分吸收，進而提昇果實產量與品質，二試區產量均以合理施肥量處理最高，分別較慣行處理區增加13.5 與30%，可溶性固形物則合理施肥量與合理施肥量加有機肥及滴灌處理最高處理最高，增加 0.2–-1°Brix，並且降低果實酸度，尤以玉井試區合理施肥量加有機肥及滴灌處理最為明顯，故其糖酸比最高。再者，近幾來芒果小黃薊馬(Scirtothripsdorsalis)成為芒果主要的害蟲，為了提供農友正確防治契機，2012 年起開始監測其蟲口資料，由2012 年初至2014 年底資料顯示，族群高峰2012 年主要發生於5–6 月與10–11 月，2013 年的5–7月與10–11 月，2014 年4–7 月與10 月。藉由發佈新聞稿與簡訊知會農友及時防治，年度的防治效果以選果率表示，由2012 年平均40%，到2014 年可達60%以上，表示此監測系統已逐漸發生成效。
Mango productions in Tainan district almost grow in hillside, that would make the farmer perform in that orchards difficult. Mango is perennial, factors such as climate, condition of trees, cultivation methods, disease, and pests may influence mango farm management very much. These factors unstabilized the quality and yield of mangos production. An integrated production system including species selection, cultivation technology and field management, could be the answer to control fruit quality and diseases more effectively. In 2011, on-the-spot inspection, we found that only 26 kg/ha of fertilizers was used in 4 production and marketing groups in Tainan district. The reason for that is it is difficult to fertilizing in hillside orchards. We try the method of deep application of fertilizer in 2 major mango production areas, Nanhua and Yujing, respectively. After 2 years trials, we found there was no significant different in all the items of mango quality analysis, except for the yields was increased from 128 to 137 fruits per plant in Nanhua area. To make the integrated production system more detailed and efficiency, we map out the irrigation system to try if it may work with fertilization system in hillside orchards. By thesoil analysisdata of twotestareas show thatsoil pH andorganic matter contentare all on low level. Therefore, to promote the nutrient availability, rational fertilizer must be used. To raise the soil pH, magnesia lime must be added. Leaf analysis data showed thatall elements in Nanhuaarea, all the mineral elements content of the treatmentwere higher than those usedchemical fertilizers by the famers (the conventional method), except magnesium concentration. In Yujing test, all the mineral elements content of the treatment are all equal to or higher than those the conventional method, except potassium level. Therefore rational fertilizationcan promotenutrients absorption, and thus increase theyield and quality offruit, we found therational fertilizationtwotest areas, the yield was increased about 13.5 to30 percent, respectively. Total soluble solids content was higher, increased about 0.2–1°Brix, foundon the treatments which were rational fertilizationandrational fertilization add organic fertilizers with water management for irrigation, andrational fertilization can reducefruitacidity, especially in Yujingrational fertilization add organic fertilizers with water management for irrigationtest area, thesugar/acid ratiois the highest. Finally, to decrease the thrips (Scirtothripsdorsalis) damage on mango peel, we set up the monitor system at Yuching and Nanhua that can inform the farmer to control the thrips if their population is over 40 per week. From 2012 to 2014, we found the insects population increased major in April to July and October to November every year. By sending the news-letter in mobile phone timely if the population is over 40, the fruits peel were perfect in all the orchards we set up the monitor system. The fruit quality in 1st degree is selected up to 40% in 2012 and 60% in 2014. The data showed it worked.
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