|Title:||建構葡萄健康管理生產體系||Other Titles:||Establishment of Health Production System for Grape||Authors:||賴文龍
|Keywords:||葡萄;健康管理;合理化施肥;病蟲害整合管理;生產成本分析;Grape;Health Management;Rational Fertilization;Integrated Pest Management;Production Cost Analysis;Integrated Crop Management||Issue Date:||Dec-2015||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||154-165||Source:||農業試驗所特刊第188號||Conference:||103年度重點作物健康管理生產體系及關鍵技術之研發成果研討會論文集||Abstract:||
建構葡萄健康管理生產體系係整合果樹栽培、肥培管理及病蟲害防治技術，儘量遵循自然生態法則，使作物健康生長；且在穩定產量及品質前提下，達到減少農藥及肥料使用量。葡萄園土壤肥培管理技術取決栽培區域之土壤特性及生產力，檢測土壤肥力並依果樹生長勢及著果量調整肥料量與施肥法。示範區依合理化施肥管理，埔心鄉每公頃三要素肥料總量可減少55.5%；新社區每公頃三要素肥料總量可減少34.9%。示範區修剪並留適量枝條，透光率維持30%以上，可降低病蟲害發生率及減少用藥；葡萄果串維持30~50粒/串，果粒肥大均勻；另經1–4 週1℃貯藏試驗，脫粒現象較對照區輕微。葡萄病蟲害管理，分別於溫室及露天果園試驗，已建立「無農藥殘留之溫室葡萄病蟲害綜合管理技術」，依病蟲害種類及發生密度，應用非農藥及誘引資材，可大幅減少60–80%的化學農藥施用次數，生產之葡萄經檢測後可達無農藥殘留。露天葡萄則建立「葡萄晚腐病管理技術」，結合「用藥」及「套袋」技巧，於葡萄開花後30 天內完成套袋，套袋前將藥劑均勻噴濕葡萄果串 (粒)，使其受到完整藥劑保護，可有效降低晚腐病用藥頻度達90%。此外，由生產成本分析，埔心鄉之示範區每公頃淨收益較對照區增加30,900元；新社區示範區亦增加22,120 元。本試驗3 年 (100–103 年) 共辦理葡萄健康管理暨合理化施肥講習55 場次，病蟲害防治及安全用藥講習51 場次，另，發表葡萄健康管理相關文章12 篇及出版葡萄健康管理手冊等。
Construct vine health management and production system that integrate cultivate technique, fertilization management and disease prevention can prompt grape health growth under natural ecosystem, and decrease pesticide and fertilizer input. Implementation of soil fertilization management technique in accordance with the soil characteristics of cultivated zone and productivity would be achieved and can provide the amounts and applied methods of fertilizer by concerning vine growth statement, expected amounts of grape and analytical results of soil fertilization and plant nutrition. In demonstration vineyard, using the rational fertilization management technique can decrease the applied amounts of major fertilizer elements, for example in Puxin township that is 134.5 kg (55.5%) per ha; in Xinshe district that is 47 kg (34.9%) per ha. In the demonstration vineyard, the vines would be pruned thoroughly in winter for maintaining 30% sunlight transmittance, providing enough growth space of grapevines and decreasing the incidence of pests and diseases associated with decreased pesticides usage. In the demonstration vineyard, the grape quality was increased such as producing big, even and good
tasted grapes and the threshing amounts of grapes were decreased after storage in 1℃ for one to four weeks, furthermore produced 30–50 grapes per bunch. The process of integrated pest management in vineyard was divided into two parts; one was applied in greenhouse and the other was in open air. (1) In greenhouse, the no pesticide residues-integrated pest management technique was constructed and applied in three stages by application of non-pesticide materials, sex pheromones and yellow sticky paper can decrease 60–80% pesticide usage frequency and produce non-pesticide residue grape. (2) In open air cultivated vineyard, construct ripe rot control management technique which was combined applied pesticides and bagging. Pesticide was sprayed thoroughly on every grape before bagging and that should be finished within 30 days after flowering which can efficiently decrease applied frequency of pesticides for control ripe rot about 90%. Production cost analysis in demonstration vineyard showed that the net income can be increased by comparison with the farmer’s vineyard, for example, in Puxin township the income was increased 30,900 dollars; in Xinshe district, it was increased 22,120 dollars. The project was conducted in three years (2011–2014) and held vine health management and rational fertilization workshop 55 sections, disease prevention and safe use of pesticide workshop 51 sections, published vine health management concerned paper 12 articles and vine health management manual one article.
|Appears in Collections:||農業化學組|
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