|Title:||變異率施肥系統之研究||Other Titles:||Study of The Variable Rate Fertilizing System||Authors:||謝禮丞
|Keywords:||水稻(Qiyza sativa L.);插秧機;深層施肥;Rice (Oryza sativa L.);Rice transplanter;Underground chemical application||Issue Date:||Jun-2002||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Related Publication(s):||農業試驗所特刊第101號||Start page/Pages:||205-218||Source:||應用於水稻精準農業體系之知識與技術||Conference:||水稻精準農業體系之研究計畫階段性成果研討會||Abstract:||
本研究係以水稻為目標作物，因此利用水稻插秧機做變率施肥之主體，同時採用深層施肥之方式。機械深層施肥較人工施肥可節省肥料用量約40%，減少施肥2-3次，提高產量。同時因肥料埋在土壤中不會流失，可減少肥料對環境之污染及因過度施肥造成土壤酸化之情形。本研究旨在研製一深層施肥裝置附掛在久保田SPA6乘坐式插秧機上，同時依土壤肥力做變率施肥，使其能達插秧與施肥同步進行。本施肥機採用台肥5號複合肥料，而機械施肥之施肥量約為農試所推薦量之60%, 375-675kg/h。。採隔行在兩秧苗中間定量施肥，其每點施肥量在8.8g至2.6g，故取施肥量分六組，每施肥點施肥8.8g, 7.8g, 6.8g, 5.8g, 4.8g及3.8g。施肥深度約6-8公分並覆土。肥料配出由輸肥輪作動，肥料輪上有施肥爪，利用可程式控制器（PLC）控制伺服馬達調整施肥爪之位移以達六段施肥控制，肥料輪作迴轉運動如棘輪之動作，使肥料自輸肥輪凹槽中落入集肥杯及肥料輸出管而掉入土壤中，輸肥輪之動力來自插秧機之插植爪，即能與插植爪同步動作。由文獻中得知，肥料在斜度62度以上，其流動性最佳，不產生死角。故肥料箱之角度設計取62度，其長寬高尺寸分別為42cm×30cm×40cm，每筒肥料容量約20kg。本年度衛星定位系統（GPS）尚未裝置於此系統上。
Rice is the object plant for the research and a rice transplanter was used to develop a variable rate machine to cany and apply variable amount of fertilizer in the field. A machine driven underground applying skill was used and it could reduce 40% chemical application comparing with manual application. The applying times could be down 2 to 3 times as well, yet increasing the yield. Since the chemical was buried in the soil, it would not be washed out. In addition, it would reduce the pollution on the land as well as avoid acidulating the soil. Therefore, a device for applying chemicals underground was developed attaching to a Kubota SPA6 rice transplanter. A local compound chemical, #5, was used in the research. The applying amount was about 60% of the recommending amount from Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, 375-675 kg/ha. In the rice field, applying in alternate line and applying certain amount of chemical between two lines of rice plants were considered. The quantity of chemical to be applied on each spot was ranged from 8.8 to 2.6 grams. There were six scales used for different demands, 8.8g, 7.8g, 6.8g, 5.8g, 4.8g and 3.8g. The applying depth was about 6 to 8 cm. There was a delivering wheel designed to rotate to transfer chemical associated with an adjustable block, which is driven by a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based servomotor for 6 chemical rates. The wheel moves back and forth to deliver chemicals. This wheel is concaved and is able to hold chemical and let the chemical drop into a collecting cup then through an output hose into soil. The power to drive the wheel comes from the transplanting finger of the transplanter so that the chemical application is able to work simultaneously with the transplanting. Based on literatures, the best chemical flowing angle in a tank is no less than 62 degrees and the tank slop used in the research was set at this value. The dimension of each chemical tank was set to 40 cm x 30 cm x 62 cm for width, depth and height, respectively. The capacity of each tank is about 31 kg. The Global Position System (GPS) has not been installed in the system for this year.
|Appears in Collections:||農業工程組|
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