Effect of Climatic Elements on the Occurrence of Sheath Blight in Rice
Lien- Sheng Liang
|Keywords:||氣象因素;水稻紋枯病;分蘗期;孕穂期;抽德期;Climatic elements;Rice sheath blight;Tillering stage;Booting stage;Heading||Issue Date:||20-Oct-1994||Publisher:||中華農業氣象學會||Journal Volume:||1||Journal Issue:||4||Start page/Pages:||157-164||Source:||中華農業氣象||Abstract:||
將台中秈10號及台農67號秈稉稻各一個品種，於台灣省農業試驗所試驗農場進行試驗，以瞭解氣象因素對水稻紋枯病發生之影響。第一、二期作水稻紋枯病之發生，大致自孕德期開始隨著生育期的後移逐漸昇高。台農67號及台中秈10號的第一、二期作各在糊熟期與黃熟期達到高峰，而其被害度，及成熟期因感病而引起的減產率，第二期作皆高於第一期作。第一期作各生育期前4日至7日之積算氣溫、積算日射量及風速與被害度出現正相關關係，唯積算氣溫與被害度呈現顯著性之正相關，相對濕度與被害度形成负相關，但無顯著性。而第二期作各生育期前3至7日之積算氣溫、積算日射及相對濕度與被害度呈現負相關關係，亦是積算氣溫與被害度之負相關達到顯著性水準。各生育期前5日至7日之平均風速與被害度之間，反而出現正相關，但無顯著性。經統計分析，第一期作之氣溫與紋枯病被害度之關係，台農67號與台中秈10號分別爲Y = -111.80+ 1.25X，及Y = -105.34 + 1.19X，（X爲各生育期前4日之氣溫，其範圆爲83.6°C〜105.7"C )；而第二期作氣溫與被害度兩者之關係，台農67號及台中秈10號各爲Y = 108.54-1.29X與Y = 119.88-1.38X，（X爲各生育期前3日之積算氣溫，其範圍是66.0°C〜81.5°C)。
Rice varieties Tainung 67 (Japonica) and Taichung Sen 10 (Indica) were grown under natural conditions at the experimental field of Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute at Wu-feng, Taichung to investigate the influence of climatic elements on the occurrence of sheath blight in rice. Both varieties in both crop seasons began to be infected by the sheath blight disease at booting stage and the disease severity increased progressively thereafter. Both varieties reached the highest disease incidence at dough ripe stage and yellow ripe stage in the first and second crop season, respectively. Both the disease incidences at dough ripe stage and yellow ripe stage and the yield reduction were higher in the second crop season than those in the first crop season. The accumulated air temperature, accumulated solar radiation and wind speed during 4-7 days prior to each growth stage showed in the first crop season a positive correlation with disease incidence. A significant positive correlation between the accumulated temperature and disease incidence were found at all stages. On the contrary, the accumulated air temperature during the period of 3-7 days before cach growth stage in the second crop season showed a significant negative correlation with disease incidence. The degree of disease incidence (Y) in relation to the accumulated air temperature (X) during 4 days before cach growth stage was derived as the following expression for the first crop season: Y=-111.80+1.25X and Y=-105.34+1.19X in Tainung 67 and Taichung Sen 10, respectivcly. In the second crop season, the degree of disease incidence in relation to the accumulated air temperature was expressed by the following formulae: Y=108.54-1.29X in Tainung 67 and Y=119.88-1.38X in Taichung Sen 10. X stands for the accumulated temperature during 3 days before each growth stage.
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