|Title:||臺灣荔枝品種及其改良||Other Titles:||The Cultivars of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) and Their Improvement in Taiwan||Authors:||顏昌瑞
|Issue Date:||1984||Publisher:||臺灣園藝學會||Journal Volume:||30||Journal Issue:||4||Start page/Pages:||210-222||Source:||中國園藝||Abstract:||
The litchi (Litchi chinensis, Sonn,) breeding program mainly including germplasm. collection and selection of seedlings from open-and controlled-pollioation was started in Taiwan in 1982. Twenty cultivars and 21 selections collected locally ware evaluated. The cultivars capable of providing superior gene sources were discussed. Four promising selections of high yielding, high quality, earliness and with high percentage of small-seeded fruits will be further evaluated. The breeding goals are listed as follows according to priority (in parentheses are the varieties that may provide the gene sources):
1. Various mature seasons to extend the supply of litchi in Taiwan (very early-Sun Yueh Hong, very late-Hwai Li).
2. High yielding and wide adaptability (Hak IP).
3. High quality and sweet fragrance (Yu Her Pan and No Mai Tsz).
4. Large fruit size (Yu Her Pau, Sun Yueh Hong and Sah Keng).
5. High percentage of small-seeded fruits (No Mei Tsz, Yu Her Pau and Sah Keng).
6. Fruit with bright and colorful red skin and smooth protuberances (No Mai Tsz and Kwsi Mi).
7. Vigorous (Yu Her Pau).
8. Processing for dried litchi nut (No Mai Tsz).
9. Long storage life.
10. Resistant to pests and diseases (downy blight, fruit borer and longicorn beetle) as well as low percentage of skin-cracking fruits.
According to fruit characters, the collections of litchi were divided into three distinct group:
Group Ⅰ (or Hon Li Group): Usually early and mature during early June in Chic Yi ares. Fruit oblong to ovoid, bright red, with distict protuberances, and generally large seeded. Fruit weighs between 20 to 25 grams. This group includes Kau Shiung Early, Vu Her Pau, Hon Pi, Foo Chow, Wan Nien Hong and Chung Yuan Hong.
Group Ⅱ (or Hak Ip Group): Mature during middle and late June in Chic Yi. Fruit cordate and dark red; protuberances usually turn smooth toward maturity. Fruit weighs about 20 grams. This group includes Hak Ip, Kwang Tung, Rang Wei Late, Sah Keng sad Sun Yueh Hong.
Group Ⅲ (or Kwai Mi Group): Generally late and mature during early July in Chia Yi. Fruit nearly globular and colorfully red; rough protuberances usually turn smooth toward maturity. Fruit weighs between 17 to 22 grams. Generally a specific fragrance could be tasted in aril in most varieties of this group and its content varied with different varieties. The acid content of fruit decrease rapidly and is eatable when the skin just turns light red. This group includes Kwai Mi, No Mai Tsz, Hwai Li, Hwai Chih, Kwai Chih, Shang Shu Hwai, Tang Po and Hsin Hsin.
The flowering behavior and pollination techniques were discussed, and both open-and controlled-pollination were followed in litchi breeding program. An multi-varieties gene pool orchard composed of 14 varieties with 9 replications was established to increase the hybridization ratio under natural condition. In the first 2 years, totaling about 2500 seedlings were collected from open-pollinated orchard and planted for future selection. Controlled-pollination was also conducted to combine superior characters as well as to overcome the difference in flowering time between early and late varieties that could not be hybridized under natural condition. From fruit-sets obtained in controlled hybridization indicated that Kang Wei, Hwai Li, Sah Keng and Hak Ip could set more fruits and were more suitable as mother plant than other varieties in controlled- pollination.
The methods to increase the efficiency of breeding litchi were tested. Handling the seedling with high population density was practiced to reduce the cost and save the land use. Top-working and the possibility of chemical sprays to shorten the juvenile phase were discussed.
|Appears in Collections:||園藝系|
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