|Title:||鳳梨產期調節研究發展與產業調適||Other Titles:||Research and Development on Off-season Production and Adaptation Industry in Pineapple (Ananas comosus)||Authors:||官青杉
|Keywords:||鳳梨;產業;花芽分化;艾維激素;奈乙酸;pineapple;pineapple industry;ReTain® (AVG);NAA||Issue Date:||Sep-2017||Publisher:||台中區農業改良場||Related Publication(s):||臺中區農業改良場特刊第134號||Start page/Pages:||113-130||Source:||果樹產期調節研究發展與產業調適研討會論文輯||Conference:||果樹產期調節研究發展與產業調適研討會||Abstract:||
臺灣鳳梨不論在年產量、產值、外銷量及外銷值等，均居果樹單一品項之冠，此與鮮食品種選擇多樣性、農政學研產銷各界致力發展鮮食鳳梨，且鳳梨酥及果乾加工產業蓬勃發展有關，使鳳梨產業得以維持經濟面向的重要性。105 年臺灣的鳳梨收穫面積為10,379 公頃，年產量 53 萬公噸，年產值達新臺幣 121 億元 (9)，鮮果外銷量 29,075 公噸，外銷值 1,262,542 千元，僅占總產量之 5.52%，雖比率不高，其經濟效益 ( 例如每公斤產值 ) 約可增加 1 倍；其餘 94.48% 鮮果則供國內鮮食及部分加工需求。為因應目前產業變化趨勢及未來發展方向，應著重於提升市場的供貨量質，以穩定內、外銷市場週年供果能力。為達此目標，栽培方面宜依據經營標的採適地適種、加強推動生產專區與集團經營方式，提高生產效率並降低成本。其次，以市場需求為導向，選擇適合的栽培品種及有效的栽培管理技術以穩定外銷用果供貨品質。考量鳳梨植株經種植一年、充分生長至完全葉達 35 片以上時，即可利用電石、乙烯、NAA、BOH 等藥劑處理，誘導花芽分化以提早果實生產期，或利用 500ppm AVG、150ppm NAA 等藥劑抑制花芽分化，以延緩果實自然產期。栽培上利用調整種植時期、種苗種類及大小，並於適當時期施行藥物處理，可有效調節鳳梨花芽分化，達到果園周年生產及市場穩定供貨之目的，對於提高鳳梨產業競爭力極為重要。
Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) now in Taiwan is the top fruit tree irrespective of its yield and value of production, as well as amount and value of export. Its variety diversity, advanced agricultural research, coordination of government policy, and the well-developed fruit processing industry makes pineapple industry stand firmly in the economic system in Taiwan. In 105, the harvested area of pineapple is 10,379 ha, with production of 530 thousand tons and year price value of 11 billion NT dollars. Most of the production, 94.48%, is for domestic fresh fruit supply and fruit processing, while the rest, 5.52%, is for fresh fruit export. The amount of pineapple export is 29,074 tons with value of 1,262,542 thousand NT dollars. Though the proportion of export of pineapple is relatively low, it has greater economic performance than domestic usage. In response to the current industrial trends and the future development direction, we need to improve the quantity and quality of production to stabilize the annual supply in both domestic and export market. First, we force on proper plant selection of the target-based management, strengthening the promotion of the production area and the group management to improve production efficiency and reduce costs. Second, to meet the needs of market and to stabilize the quality of fruit export, we need to select appropriate cultivars combining with effective cultivation and management techniques. After one year of planting, pineapple plants will have more than 35 leaves, the floral initiation of which can be induced by chemicals, e.g. CaC2, ethylene, NAA and BOH, to advance the fruit harvest date. On the other hand, 500ppm AVG and 150ppm NAA can inhibit floral induction and thus leads to delay the original supply period. By adjusting planting date, seedling classes and sizes, combing with proper chemical treatment, floral induction of pineapple could be well controlled to stabilize annual production of orchards and market supply, which can help to increase the competitiveness of pineapple industry.
|Appears in Collections:||園藝系|
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