|Title:||檬果主要害蟲之族群消長與氣候因子關係||Other Titles:||Relationship between population occurrence of mango insect pests and climate factors||Authors:||溫宏治
|Keywords:||檬果害蟲;氣候因子;族群消長;Mango tree;Mango insect pests;Occurrence;Climate factors||Issue Date:||Sep-2010||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Related Publication(s):||農業試驗所特刊第146號||Start page/Pages:||43-54||Source:||檬果產銷暨蟲害管理研討會專刊||Conference:||檬果產銷暨蟲害管理研討會
Proceedings of the Symposium on Production and Pest Management of Mango
檬果主要害蟲有檬果褐葉蟬 (Idioscopus nitidulus)、檬果綠葉蟬 (I. clypealis)、薊馬類 (thrips)、檬果木蝨 (Microceropsylla nigra)、東方果實蠅 (Bactrocera dorsalis) 、檬果葉蟎 (Oligonychus mangiferus) 及檬果癭蚋 (Procontarinia mangicola)。檬果褐葉蟬全年均會發生，其族群消長由 2 月開花期逐漸增加，至 3 月中旬達最高峰， 4 月中旬便逐漸減少，其間高峰期之氣候乾燥，溫度介於 21℃ 與 26℃ 間。檬果綠葉蟬族群密度於開花期 (1~4 月) 最高，其族群消長受氣候影響因素中以溫度因子最大。檬果木蝨之族群發生密度除與檬果新梢之生長有關外，也受溫度之影響，5~7 月為其發生最高峰期。檬果薊馬類害蟲中，腹鉤薊馬(Rhipiphorothrips cruentatus) 發生於 8 月至次年 1 月間，小黃薊馬 (Scirtothrips dorsalis) 全年均會發生，花薊馬 (Thrips hawaiiensis) 僅發生於 1~3 月之開花期，降雨量大可顯著降下薊馬之族群密度，其中對腹鉤薊馬之影響最大，小黃薊馬影響較小，而溫度升高對小黃薊馬之繁殖潛能有增加之趨勢。檬果園內東方果實蠅之族群變動之季節指數於 4~6 月之結果期間較高，1~3 月之開花期次之，7~9 月新梢期大幅降低，10~12 月越冬期最低，於開花期間其族群密度與溫度成正相關。檬果葉蟎之族群密度於2~6 月及10~12 月為最高峰，時值氣候溫暖乾燥。檬果癭蚋之族群密度於 9~10 月新梢期最高，此期間氣候溫暖。
The major pests associated with mangos in Taiwan are mango brown leafhoppers (Idioscopus niveosparsus), mango green leafhoppers (I. clypealis), thrips, mango psyllids (Microceropsylla nigra), oriental fruit flies (Bactrocera dorsalis), mango spider mites (Oligonychus mangiferus) and mango gall midges (Procontarinia mangicola). The population of brown leafhoppers generally increases as mango begin blossoming in February, gradually reaching a peak in mid-March. The population usually decreases during mid-April, which corresponds to the mid-point of the dry season when temperatures range between 21oC and 26oC. The population of the mango green leafhopper is closely associated with temperature during the mango blossoming stage, which typically lasts for one to four months. The population growth of mango psyllids is also related to temperature, usually peaking between May and July. The population of grapevine thrips (Rhipiphorothrips cruentatus) and flower thrips (Thrips hawaiiensis) is inversely related to precipitation. The population of chili thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) increases with increases in temperature. Population fluctuations among oriental fruit flies is positively correlated with temperature. This corresponds to the blossoming stage of mangos between January and March, as the population of fruit flies tends to increase dramatically between April and June, but decreases substantially between the months of July and September. Fruit fly population levels are lowest between October and December. The population density of mango spider mites increases during dry, warm weather. The population of mango spider mites tends to peak between February and June, with another jump between October and December. The population of mango gall midges typically peaks between September and October.
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