|Title:||台灣稻作害蟲之防治技術改進||Other Titles:||Improvement of Rice Insect Pests Control Measures in Taiwan||Authors:||鄭清煥
|Issue Date:||Jun-1996||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Related Publication(s):||農業試驗所特刊第59號||Start page/Pages:||99-108||Source:||稻作生產改進策略研討會專刊||Conference:||稻作生產改進策略研討會
Proceedings of the Symposium on the Strategy for the Improvement of Rice Production
台灣水稻害蟲重要者只有10 餘種，其中關鍵害蟲隨耕作制度的演變而屢有更迭；為防治關鍵害蟲之危害，防治策略隨害蟲種類之演變，防治技術之研發與社會之需求而變動“在1950 年以前，對主要害蟲之防治以耕作防治、生物防治及以植物或非有機物質防治，效果有限。1950 年後有機合成殺蟲劑引入本省對各種害蟲均以撒佈廣效而持久性殺蟲劑防治為主；過度使用農藥常導致飛蝨及葉蟬類之猖獗發生。1970 年代中期後防治策略因病害蟲發生預測制度之建立，而逐漸演變為於適當時期使用短效性殺蟲劑防治。1980 年代中期後由於害蟲之經濟為害基準及防治適期之釐定，抗蟲品種之推廣，以及短效性及選擇性殺蟲劑之問世，而逐漸以害蟲綜合防治方法防治水稻害蟲。在1990 年代，因社會變遷，稻農年齡老化，兼業農民日眾，且政府為加入貿易總協，水稻栽培除機械插秧外，並獎勵直播、再生栽培或休耕，害蟲發生種類及其發生高峰期均明顯變動，文中對機插栽培稻之管理缺失以及直播稻、再生稻之蟲害管理策略和今後待加強之研究項目均有簡要之描述。
About 140 species of rice insect pests had ever been recorded in Taiwan, but less than 10 species were economic importance. The key pest species of rice were variable following the change of cultural practices. As the result, the measures used for controlling the insect pests were also revised according to the change of key pest species, and also available techniques and social requirement. Before the years of 1950, the important insect pests on rice were yellow rice borer (Scirpophaga incertulas), rice hispa (Diclahispa similis), rice leafbeetle (Oulema oryzae), black rice bug (Scotinophara lurida) and white back planthoppers ( Sogatella fucifera), which were controlled mostly depending on cultural practices, physical methods, natural enemies and natural subtances, but their effectiveness were limited. After organic synthetic insecticides were introduced gradually into Taiwan since 1950, the insect pests was controlled merely depending on the wide- spectrum and long-residual insecticides, which induced consequentially the outbreak of plant-and leafhoppers. Such phenomenon was continuosly to around 1970 after a short-term forecasting system was established that made possible for timing control of insect pests with short-residual insecticides. There- aftr, due to the economic threshold of major insect pests had been developed to set a reliable timing for insecticide application, resistance to key pest rice varieties had been developed and released to farmers, and the insecticide of selective or more safety to natural enemies had been introduced ¡¥ tested and recommended to be used in the years of 1980,all of these components made the feasibility of control insect pests approaching to integrated measures. Recently, in order to meet the requirement of social changes, such as increase of old-aged and part-time farmers, and decline of the cost of rice production for facing the challenges of enterring into WTO, rice culture,beside transplanting with transplanter, direct seeding and ratoon rice have also been encouraged by the government. Such changes have induced the change of pest status in many aspects. Some problem of present control measures in transplanting rice, the measures for control of the insect pests on direct seeding rice and ratoon rice are also described briefly at present paper.
|Appears in Collections:||植物保護系|
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